The Geography of Wine: Regions, Terroir and Techniques

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Industry strategies and flexibility There is an old expression that suggests advice is free unless it is followed. Smoke taint There may not be a better example illustrating the need for research investment than smoke taint. Climate change and how forest land has been managed has resulted in an increase in the incidence of forest fires. Smoke residue contains high concentrations of volatile phenols such as guaiacol and eugenol.

The glycosylated forms of these phenols tend to accumulate in the grape skin and pulp. Climate change dilemma and science skepticism Some people have been under the impression that in U. That is, the government will work to protect all of our citizens. Unfortunately, that has not been true with regard to climate change.

Capitalism acknowledges that there will be destructive consequences to the pursuit of private prosperity and financial gains.

Corporations suggest that they did not mean to pollute the river but are quite pleased to have someone else pay to fix it. However, what do we do if it is not a river, but the entire planet being degraded as a result of human-induced climate change? Their habitude is to do nothing about the changing climate because they do not want to, and because the threat of destruction is not persuasive to them. They are quite pleased to have others pay for any corrections that may be needed.

It would appear that their motto isPereat mundus dum ego salvus sim: Let the world perish as long as I am safe. But they are no safer than you and I; they simply value their wealth and the status quo. Directly and conclusively linking climate change to weather has admittedly been difficult, a fact the heretics point out on a regular basis. But asking for direct scientific evidence in this case is like attempting to vindicate that poor eyesight or arthritis are caused by old age.

They are not, but they are certainly related.

The Geography of Wine - Regions, Terroir and Techniques | Percy H. Dougherty | Springer

Blaise Pascal was a French fideistic philosopher who proposed a wager to his colleagues who did not believe in God. The wager, and you had to bet, was his way of demonstrating the importance of seeing the world the way you would like it to be. If you are right, what do you gain?

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Absolutely nothing. What do you lose? Infinitively everything. You can bet there is a God, and if you are wrong, what do you lose? If you wager there is a God and you are right, what do you gain? Infinitely everything including eternal salvation. Faced with the choice of no detriment and such a gain, who would not at least want there to be a God? What do you and the rest of us lose if you bet against man-made climate change and are wrong? Everything, including a livable planet! Only when the deniers and capitalists are brought on board will significant progress be made.

Mahatma Gandhi discussed the concept of svadharma outlined in the Bhagavad Gita. The idea is that that each member of a society has a collective duty, a responsibility, indeed an obligation to work to bring forth the values he or she endorses. The modern equivalent: If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem! References 1. Bindi, M. Fibbi and F.

  1. 52 Weeks of Sizzling Sex, The Loveologist ® Guide to;
  2. Soil-related terroir factors: a review | OENO One.
  3. South of the Border, West of the Sun.
  4. Soil-related terroir factors: a review | OENO One!
  5. Growth and quality of grape and wine in response to elevated CO 2 concentrations. European J. Bock, A, T.

    Wine regions of France (so many wines to try!)

    Sparks, N. Estrella and A. Climate Research, 50, Catena, L. Wine Econ. Diamond, J. Duteau J. Guilloux, and G. Connaissances de la Vigner et du Vin. Vol Frank, D. Gladstones J. Gray, J. Jones, G. Reid and A.

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    In: Dougherty, P. Kennison, K.

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    Wilkinson, A. Pollnitz, H. Williams and M. Gibberd, Effect of timing and duration of grapevine exposure to smoke on the composition and sensory properties of wine. Grape Wine Res. Kliewer, M. Torres, Effect of controlled day and night temperatures on grape coloration. Vol 23, no. Lageder, A. Torres, M. Impacts, adaption and vulnerability. Roehrdanz, R. Hannah Climate change, California wine and wildlife habitat. Smith, C. Goal and strategies. Presentation to Wineries Unlimited, Richmond, Virginia.

    Fraint, X. The concept of terroir exists in other drinks, notably in tea Wuyi rock-essence tea being a notable example and Cognac where the chalky soil, climate and distance from the ocean are all factors influencing the product. As of , producers of whiskey , bourbon , rum , and vodka used terroir elements in their production process, including wood flavors derived from barrel aging.

    The tenet of terroir has also been applied to the production of Artisan cheese , [12] and French authorities have fought to balance traditional cheesemakers terroir cheeses concerns with those of major industrialists. The influence of terroir means that wines from a particular region are unique, incapable of being reproduced outside that area, even if the grape variety and winemaking techniques are painstakingly duplicated.

    Winemakers in Burgundy do not believe that they are producing Pinot noir that happens to be grown in Burgundy, but that they are producing unique Burgundian wines that happen to be made from Pinot noir. Appellation systems, such as the French AOC systems, have developed around the concepts of "unique wines from a unique area". These systems have also developed into protected designation of origin across the European Union so that, for example, winemakers from outside a region like Tuscany can not produce a Sangiovese wine and call it a Chianti.

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    While the wine may be made from the same clonal variety of Sangiovese, in the same soil composition as found in the Chianti region with winemakers using the Tuscan method of production, there is an assumption that the two wines will be different due to terroir. The names of these European wine regions are protected so that wines from different regions and different terroir are not confused with wines from that those regions — i. A Spanish or Australian "chianti". In the United States there is some confusion over the use of semi-generic names like Champagne and Port but there has been more effort by the American wine industry to recognize the unique association of place names with the wines produced in those places, such as the Napa Declaration on Place agreement.

    While appellation systems and the protected designations of origin can be a way of protecting "unique terroir ", the commercial importance of terroir has been a much debated topic in the wine industry. The importance of terroir affects the price of the agricultural product as well as the products made from the product.